Pavilion at the Montreal Expo Scalar fluidity in the work of Fuller, the Eameses, and the IG itself, animated a design practice with worldly ambitions, and pressed cinema and other moving-image technologies to expand beyond their normal institutional operations and sites. From the cinema, we receive conceptual information ideas and design information experiences.
This information is either useful additive or redundant. Useful information accelerates change.
COLLECTED ESSAYS ON LITERATURE AND CRITICISM:
Redundant information restricts change. If sustained long enough, redundant information becomes misinformation, which results in negative change. EC As design scientist the artist discovers and perfects language that corresponds more directly to experience; he develops hardware that embodies its own software as a conceptual tool for coping with reality.
He separates the image from its official symbolic meaning and reveals its hidden potential, its process, its actual reality, the meaning of the thing. As etymology, this is pretty thin. And the means of practicing art have been radically extended. We might recall that many of the best stories about a recognizably modernist encounter with the technological mediation of experience in the first media age of the interwar period presuppose a literary culture, and cast modernist literature as one player in a rich media ecology of convergence and differentiation.
By this, I mean not just its ubiquity, or its relationship to ever-faster cycles of obsolescence, but its radically altered scale—its degree of personalization and customization, its penetration of lifestyle, and its way of opening up the smallest domains of life as yet another space of management and monetization.
This modernism traverses a midcentury moment defined by the sheer multiplicity of worlds, times, and natures, often on the thresholds of sensation, and thus fueled new, decidedly uncertain formal experiments of the kind later gathered under the rubric of expanded cinema. It responded to such changes in worldedness with the feeling of security—with new strategies of sensory management and discipline, new models of speculative futurism.
Reckoning with the terrain of modernist cultural production at midcentury thus requires keener attention to the implication of the sensorium in debates about how screen cultures and their institutional sites abet forms of governmentality, and about the sensation of democracy itself in the designed environments of postwar life, including expanded cinema. Within their modernism, the sensible conditions of democratic life blurred with the tactile solicitations of a strange new object horizon.
Midcentury Futurisms: Expanded Cinema Design and the Modernist Sensorium
Penny Sparke New York: Rizzoli, , Acland and Haidee Wasson, eds. The citations from the lectures that follow come from a typed, unpaginated transcript of the lecture content. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. September Important figures. Important works.
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Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Main article: Beyond the Pleasure Principle. See also: Philosophy of the "Will" in Schopenhauer. Main article: Civilization and Its Discontents. Journal of Analytical Psychology. Free pdf of the full essay by the Arizona Psychoanalytic Society. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought. IV : — The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. Volume 3. New York City: Basic Books. It is a little odd that Freud himself never, except in conversation, used for the death instinct the term Thanatos , one which has become so popular since.
At first he used the terms "death instinct" and "destructive instinct" indiscriminately, alternating between them, but in his discussion with Einstein about war he made the distinction that the former is directed against the self and the latter, derived from it, is directed outward. Stekel had in used the word Thanatos to signify a death-wish, but it was Federn who introduced it in the present context. The Language of Psycho-analysis reprint, revised ed. London: Karnac Books. Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts on the Theory of Instincts.
Abingdon-on-Thames : Routledge. The World as Will and Presentation. Translated by Richard E. Aquila and David Carus. New York: Longman. London, pp. Deracination; Historicity, Hiroshima, and the Tragic Imperative. Death's Dream Kingdom. From the data gathered by Morin et al. Another important aspect is the investigation of the sense that men and women derive from work, suggesting that the gender dimension may be of the essence in themes such as identity, independence and personal satisfaction, for example. Another study, conducted by Carvalho etal. For newer employees, the creation of sense at work is veered toward concern with professional development.
Isaksen [ 38 ], for example, observed that people who provide sense to work support stress better. This research indicates that meaningful work entails preventive effects upon people's health. Work suffering factors are clearly described by studies about stress at work: work load and pace; schedules rotating, variable, unpredictable, night time, long ; the future of employment job security ; recognition and support; and autonomy and exercise of skills. When inadequate, these factors may create health problems, affecting people's working capabilities.
Therefore, they represent the target for disease and psychological suffering prevention in the work environment.
Nelson and Simmons [ 41 ] pinpoint five sets of stress factors: job requirements, relation requirements, psychic requirements, organizational policies and working conditions. Since the stress phenomenon is complex, these factors may create, at the same time, eustress positive stress and suffering negative stress. The ensuing psychological status carries effects upon health, performance and private life, with better results appearing when the person feels pleasure with his work. In the case of suffering, people mobilize their defense systems to offset distress, in order to maintain, after all, performance at work and quality of life.
The sense that individuals provide to work and to the relations established with it also depends on individual factors or differences, such as sex, personality type, emotional traits and style of attributions. Consequently, it is also necessary to control these factors to better understand the relations among work, health and individual and organizational performance indicators [ 41 ]. The objective of this section is to discuss the articulations between work and human suffering.
The first research pursuits in the s were dedicated to the investigation of psychic disturbances caused by work.
The 10 Best Modernist Books (in English)
Unquestionably, this is the reason why studies relating to stress theory emerged at the same time. An important issue that beaconed investigations into the psychopathology of work was as follows: How can employees, despite the embarrassments found in the work situation, preserve their psychic equilibrium and maintain normalcy? Thus, the focus was less into the investigation of mental illnesses and more into the strategies crafted by employees to deal with suffering and mentally cope with the work situation [ 1 ].
As far as origin is concerned, suffering can be classified as singular suffering diachronic dimension —that inherited from each individual's own psychic history and current suffering synchronic dimension , emerging from the relationship that the individual establishes in work situations.
Considering the responses strategies that workers devise to cope with working situations, suffering can be creative or pathogenic. The first occurs when the subject, struggling against suffering, crafts original solutions, which are generally simultaneously favorable to production and health. On the other hand, the individual may propose unfavorable solutions to his own health as well, creating pathogenic suffering [ 1 ]. As of the early s, the psychopathology of work was especially concerned with the establishment of a clinic for this suffering found in the psychic relation with work.
Studies disclosed that pressures from work that jeopardize equilibrium and mental health do not ensue from physical conditions noise, temperature, vibrations, etc. This objective is vain, if not absurd.
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Firstly because as soon as driven away, suffering reappears and crystallizes in other forms as offered by reality. Therefore, instead of suppressing situations that cause suffering, managers should provide conditions under which individuals can themselves manage their anguish. The challenge is then to reconcile mental health and work.
In convergence with this line, psychoanalysis itself recognizes that there is no way to eliminate the symptom, which has two aspects: suffering and dysfunction [ 42 ]: For psychoanalysis, there is no symptom elimination but a transmutation of symptoms. When one disappears, the other steps in, in greater or lesser tune with the subject.
- The Problem with Pleasure: Modernism and its Discontents, by Laura Frost.
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- Warriors and Kings (The Axe and the Akanor).
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In this sense, it is true that psychoanalysis does not heal. Thus, psychoanalysis proposes to reconcile the subject with the symptom, treating by the symptom instead of treating the symptom, implying a change in the relationship between the individual and his enjoyment his fantasy. Being happy, more than an individual pursuit, is part of government plans. Indeed, throughout his elaborations on social phenomena, Fred continuously highlighted the importance of cultural material available and active in society for the psychic operation of subjectivities.
Following such indication, much has been discussed in the psychoanalytic milieu about the dynamics of contemporary society, seeking to make explicit the extent to which the cultural context favors the production of subjectivation modes distinct from those emerging in the beginnings of the twentieth century. The theoretical framework of psychoanalysis is based on Freud's clinic, with hysterias. Since The Interpretation of Dreams [ 43 ], however, the world underwent significant changes and current modes of psychic suffering are not the same that characterize the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Scientific and technological advances, the globalization of the economy and markets and the new outlines of the capitalist production and consumption system arouse issues and impasse different that those that characterized the time when psychoanalysis was conceived.
Toward New Paradigms
Issues related to fidelity and trust are therefore frontally affected, especially in countries such as Brazil where emotional relationships, camaraderie and informality are strongly connected to protectionism and employment and authority ties [ 44 ]. If there is a relationship between the subject and one's subjective experience, then one could say that there equally is a relationship between types of illness and the appearance of new manners of subjectivation. One could also expand these assumptions proposing new issues, such as Why does a specific manner of suffering impose itself at specific times?
To what extent are the modes of illness disclosers of individuality changes in specific periods? From such framework, one could consider the contemporary subjectivation experience articulates with specific forms of illness, while the subjective experience of modernity articulated or had others prevail.