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However, he did not develop an independent theory of andragogy. Andragogik: The method of teaching adults. Education through experience. In the s, there were several publications on andragogy in Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, and what was then Yugoslavia Reischmann, a Reischmann, J. Andragogy: History, meaning, context, function. Like andragogy in the s, the events of the war constituted an important factor in the developmental work on adult pedagogy after There was a need to shape a form of education that could contribute to justice and peace and that would show that the societies in question had learnt lessons from the racial hatred and intolerance that accompanied the war.

This led to rapid growth in the field of adult education after World War II. There was a demand for basic literature that would make it possible to cope with the challenges, but such literature was scarce.

Central works from the interwar period were brought up, and they included the writings of Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Werner Picht, and Martin Buber. According to Faber Faber, W. My way to andragogy: Autobiographical reflections. They were engaged in adult learning within their disciplines, for instance, education and sociology, at university and were among the first to mainly reflect on issues concerning adult learning.

The German-speakers among them included individuals who played noteworthy roles in connection to the development of andragogy in the s: namely, the Swiss Heinrich Hanselmann Hanselmann, H. Henn Verlag. According to Hanselmann Hanselmann, H. The book widely received approval and acceptance as a fundamental work on the goals, motives, content, methods, and institutions of adult learning. He focused on the characteristics of the field to avoid making the goals and methods of childhood and youth education uncritically valid for adults. Moreover, the second half of the s saw a development towards establishing andragogy as a separate science in then Yugoslavia Babic, Babic, G.

Soljan , G. Krajnc Eds. Zagreb : Andragoski Centar.

Andragogy as an academic discipline was established at the University of Belgrade first, then elsewhere in the country. Dusan Savicevic was the individual from then Yugoslavia who attracted most attention internationally. He was a professor at the University of Belgrade and one of the foremost experts of andragogy in South-eastern Europe. His publications covered comparative studies of andragogy in different countries among other subjects. In Great Britain, interest in the concept of andragogy was not awakened until the s with the exception of an article by Simpson Simpson, J.

Adult Education , 37 4 , — In his opinion, andragogy could denote relevant knowledge for those who dealt with adult education. The University of Nottingham in particular focused on the concept and established a group for its closer study Nottingham Andragogy Group, Nottingham Andragogy Group. Towards a developmental theory of andragogy. It defined andragogy as follows: Andragogy can be defined as an approach i. This approach is aimed at enabling people to become aware that they should be the originators of their own thinking and feeling Nottingham Andragogy Group, Nottingham Andragogy Group.

The group asserted that andragogy should be an alternative to pedagogy and andragogical practice must be a unity of reflexion and action, with dialogue as a central feature. The individual who contributed the most to making andragogy known was the American Malcolm Knowles. The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy. Paper presented at the midwest research-to-practice conference in adult, continuing, community and extension education. Charles, MO : Lindenwood University.

Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles of adult learning. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers. Knowles had never heard the word before, so Savicevic told him that, in Europe, the concept was used in parallel to pedagogy to denote the growing knowledge about adult learning. The concept must have excited Knowles because he adopted it as a term for his still nameless theory of adult learning, which he had developed over many years of practice.

Later, he admitted having misprinted the word.

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Androgogy not pedagogy. Adult Leadership , 16 10 , — This was a narrower approach than the one that was prevalent in Europe up to that time. His assumptions were as follows:. As individuals mature: Their self-concept moves from one of being a dependent personality towards being a self-directed human being;.

They accumulate a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasingly rich resource for learning;.

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Their readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly towards the developmental tasks of their social roles; and. Their time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and, accordingly, their orientation towards learning shifts from one of subject-centeredness to one of performance-centeredness. View all notes Knowles, Knowles, M.

The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. Chicago, IL : Association Press. Later, Knowles Knowles, M. It must be mentioned that, in the light of this debate, Knowles changed the subtitle of the book to From Pedagogy to Andragogy Knowles, Knowles, M.

International Journal of Lifelong Education , 3 3 , — They first met in the middle of the s, when Knowles worked at the National Youth Administration in Massachusetts and Lindeman became his mentor. The meaning of adult education. The making of an adult educator. An autobiographical journey. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass. Moreover, it was Lindeman who introduced the concept of andragogy to the United States, but it was not made use of at that time. Many were satisfied to finally have a theory which was applicable in practice. Knowles also became a long sought-after spokesman for adult pedagogy as a separate discipline.

Among others, Jarvis Jarvis, P. Andragogy: A sign of the times. Studies in the Education of Adults , 16 1 , 32 — Is there a way out of the andragogy morass? Lifelong Learning: an Omnibus of Practice and Research , 11 3 , 17 — Sandlin Sandlin, J. Andragogy and its discontents: An analysis of andragogy from three critical perspectives. In that sense, he did not consider how privileges and suppression attached to race, gender, and class influenced learning.

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This presupposed that all humans and cultures valued ideals such as individualism, self-realisation, independence, and self-direction. Finger and Asun Finger, M. Adult education at the crossroads: Learning our way out. London : Zed Books. The second half of the twentieth century is considered to have been the most fruitful period for the development of andragogy as a relatively independent scientific discipline.

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During it, there was an increased focus on professionalization within the field of adult learning in Europe and in North America Savicevic, Savicevic, D. The perspectives on andragogy as a discipline varied. Savicevic Savicevic, D. Modern conceptions of andragogy: A European framework. Studies in the Education of Adults , 23 3 , — Understanding andragogy in Europe and America: Comparing and contrasting.

Michal Eds. Representatives of this view included some authors in Germany, Poland, then Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Soviet. Andragogy was understood as a sort of integrative science, where different established disciplines such as sociology and psychology, were unified in a common andragogical science. The Netherlands was the only country where this approach had been attempted.

The conception was, in essence, a pragmatic and practical one, focusing on the behaviour of teachers and learners in the learning situation. The possibility of establishing andragogy as a separate science was opposed. Andragogy was considered to be a field of research belonging to established sciences such as sociology, psychology, and anthropology.

This view was particularly prominent in France and Great Britain. Andragogy was considered to be an independent scientific discipline with its own scientific structure, specific fields of research, and a system of sub-disciplines. Advocates for this conception were found in Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Hungary, then Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia.

This overview shows that the perception of andragogy as a scientific discipline varied. Some rejected the possibility of establishing an independent andragogical science, while others on the opposite extreme argued in favour of andragogy as an integrative science, with other sciences being subordinate to andragogy the Dutch variant.

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Somewhere in between, andragogy was subordinate to pedagogy or other established sciences. According to Savicevic a Savicevic, D. Adult education: From practice to theory building. Frankfurt am Main, Germany : Peter Lang. That was why andragogy there was first introduced at universities that offered pedagogical studies.